Más de la mitad de los casos de cáncer en el mundo podrían prevenirse cambiando tres conductas vinculadas al estilo de vida: el tabaquismo, la obesidad y la inactividad física.

Según un estudio llevado a cabo en la Universidad de Washington y el Centro de Cáncer Siteman en St Louis, Estados Unidos, hoy se cuenta con el conocimiento para reducir la «carga de salud pública del cáncer».

Sin embargo, todavía hace falta llevar a cabo muchos más esfuerzos para cambiar tanto el comportamiento de los individuos como de las poblaciones.

El estudio, publicado en Science Translational Medicine (Science, Medicina Traslacional), nombra lo que dice son «una serie de obstáculos que están en el camino para poder hacer mella en la carga de cáncer en Estados Unidos y en todo el mundo».

«En realidad, contamos con una enorme cantidad de datos sobre las cuasas y prevención del cáncer» expresa el doctor Graham Colditz, principal autor del estudio.

«Es tiempo de que invirtamos en la implementación de lo que sabemos».

Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) el cáncer es causa de unos 7,6 millones de muertes que ocurren cada año en el mundo, la mayoría (80%) en los países de medianos y bajos ingresos.

Y más de tres millones de estas muertes (30%) podrían prevenirse.

En el nuevo estudio, el doctor Colditz afirma que «lo que sabemos ahora es que los hábitos del estilo de vida de la gente y la sociedad pueden influir de varias formas, tanto con el uso de tabaco como la dieta y el ejercicio, y éstas juegan un papel significativo en causar cáncer».

Tan sólo el tabaquismo, dicen los científicos, es responsable del 30% de todos los casos de cáncer, y el exceso de peso corporal y obesidad de otro 20%.

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