droneLa Administración Nacional de Aviación Civil (ANAC) reglamentó la utilización de drones e impuso requisitos obligatorios que incluyen exámenes psicofísicos y controles de alcoholemia para quienes quieran operar estos vehículos aéreos no tripulados.

El «reglamento provisional de los vehículos no tripulados» fue publicado hoy en el Boletín Oficial a través de la resolución 527, donde se establece que las correspondientes autorizaciones se tramitarán a través del denominado Casillero Aeronáutico Digital (CAD).

Entre otras cuestiones, la extensa normativa de la ANAC señala que quienes operen drones deberán «contar con aptitud psicofisiológica certificada por un hospital público, que de cuenta de su aptitud visual y auditiva como así también de su motricidad fina».

Asimismo, indica que «los miembros de la tripulación remota de un vehículo aéreo pilotado a distancia o un sistema de vehículos aéreos pilotados a distancia de esta categoría deberán ser mayores de 16 años de edad»; no obstante aclara que «cuando la tripulación remota estuviera integrada por un miembro menor de 18 años y mayor de 16, deberá encontrarse bajo la supervisión directa de un mayor de edad responsable por sus actos y omisiones».

También advierte que «ningún miembro de la tripulación remota participará en su operación bajo los efectos del alcohol o drogas».

En los considerandos de la reglamentación de la ANAC sobre uso de drones se recuerda que «el desarrollo científico y técnico motivó la irrupción de nuevos usuarios y aparatos en el espacio aéreo y, entre éstos, los sistemas de aeronaves no tripuladas o UAS (por su sigla en inglés), a las aeronaves pilotadas a distancia, las plenamente autónomas o la combinación de ambas».

Asimismo, se recuerda que la Organización de Aviación Civil Internacional (OACI) «se encuentra elaborando el marco normativo que regulará la operación de dichos vehículos aéreos».

En ese marco, se añade: «Como consecuencia de la carencia de una norma internacional en la materia, la operación de los vehículos aéreos no tripulados carece de una normativa interna específica, lo que no fue óbice para el desarrollo de la industria nacional al respecto, su comercialización y uso, tanto con fines recreativos como comerciales».

Por eso, remarca que «resulta necesario» se regulen con «carácter provisorio estos vehículos y sistemas de vehículos y se establezcan los recaudos para su operación».

El objetivo principal de este marco normativo provisional es «lograr y conservar el nivel uniforme de seguridad operacional», que en el caso de los vehículos aéreos no tripulados significa «velar por la seguridad operacional de todos los demás usuarios del espacio aéreo así como la seguridad de las personas y los bienes en superficie», indica la resolución de la ANAC.

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