reforma política - imagen ilustrativaLa ley sancionada por el Congreso entró en vigencia hoy con su publicación en el Boletín Oficial. El Ejecutivo expresó que los artículos 107 y 108 «contradicen el objetivo central de la ley al diferir hasta el 2012 la aplicación de normas directamente relacionadas con la mejora de la representación política y fundamentales para ordenar el universo de actores políticos».

De esta forma, el decreto 2004/2009 de promulgación -dictado el viernes último y publicado hoy en el Boletín Oficial- puso en marcha la norma convertida en ley el 2 de diciembre último, excepto en dos artículos, que establecían como fecha de puesta en vigencia de cuatro ítems de la norma al 31 de diciembre del 2011.

En este sentido, el Poder Ejecutivo expresó que los artículos 107 y 108 «contradicen el objetivo central de la ley al diferir hasta el año 2012 la aplicación de normas directamente relacionadas con la mejora de la representación política y fundamentales para ordenar el universo de actores políticos».

De acuerdo con el texto aprobado por el Congreso Nacional, el artículo 108 de la ley establecía que recién en el 2012 comenzaría a regir el ítem que señalaba que, durante la vigencia del reconocimiento provisorio, los partidos políticos no podrían presentar candidaturas a cargos electivos ni en elecciones primarias ni en elecciones nacionales.

En tanto, el artículo 107 también fijaba al 31 de diciembre de 2011 como fecha para la puesta en vigencia del inciso tercerodel artículo séptimo y del artículo octavo de la norma, referidos a los requisitos para la formación de confederaciones nacionales y para la fusión de partidos políticos.

En este sentido, en las observaciones, el Ejecutivo argumentó que la norma postergaba la vigencia de modificaciones a la Ley Orgánica de Partidos Políticos que resultaban «esenciales para la implementación de la reforma política, tornando de esta manera absolutamente incongruente con el objetivo planteado por la ley».

La reforma política sancionada el 2 de diciembre último por el Congreso Nacional establece la realización de elecciones primarias abiertas, simultáneas y obligatorias para todos los partidos que postulen precandidatos para nominar a cargos electivos nacionales.

Según lo establecido por esa norma, las elecciones primarias se realizarán los segundos domingos de agosto de los años en los que se realicen elecciones nacionales, ya sean presidenciales y/o legislativas, que se realizarán los cuartos domingos deoctubre.

La reforma también elimina a las listas «colectoras» y a las denominadas «espejo»; establece que se votará con el mismo padrón que se utiliza en la elección general; y remarca que de las elecciones generales sólo podrán participar las agrupaciones que hayan obtenido en las primarias el 1,5 por ciento de los votos válidamente emitidos requeridos.

Además, agrupaciones que no alcancen el 2 por ciento del padrón electoral del distrito que corresponda perderán su personería jurídico-política.

Entre otros aspectos, la norma sancionada por el Congreso Nacional reduce a 8 días la prohibición para publicar los resultados de encuestas y a 15 la de realizar actos inaugurales de obras públicas o promoción de planes y proyectos de alcance colectivo y otro acto de gobierno que pueda promover la captación del sufragio a favor de cualquiera de los candidatos a cargos públicos.

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