Desarrollado por INTI-Caucho, este nuevo adhesivo proviene de una materia prima natural y renovable como es la soja.

Las resinas a base de urea-formaldehido (UF) son ampliamente usadas como adhesivos para aglomerados y/o laminados debido a su bajo costo y alto poder de adhesión.

Tanto en la fabricación del adhesivo como en las tareas posteriores realizadas se libera formaldehido, altamente tóxico.

Debe tenerse en cuenta que la Organización Mundial de la Salud  (OMS) declaró al formaldehido como agente cancerígeno.

Las resinas UF derivan del petróleo o del gas. La futura escasez de estos insumos básicos hace prever un aumento de los precios relativos y/o una falta de disponibilidad del producto.

El concentrado de proteína de soja (CPS) es una materia prima natural, renovable y no tóxica, pero con valores de adhesión inferiores, por lo tanto el objetivo de este desarrollo fue modificar el adhesivo a base de CPS para obtener un producto con valores de adhesión en seco, similares a los de UF, a un precio competitivo, libre de formaldehido y, por ende, no tóxico.

La soja es un cultivo utilizado para la obtención de aceites y proteínas. Es el cultivo de mayor importancia en Argentina, siendo el 3° productor a nivel mundial.

Las materias primas obtenidas de la soja que resultan adecuadas para la formulación de adhesivos son la harina, el concentrado proteico (CPS) y el aislado proteico (APS). La mayor diferencia entre estos 3 subproductos es el contenido de proteína que es de alrededor de 48, 64 y 92% respectivamente.

Para este trabajo se eligió partir de CPS, presuponiendo un balance entre buenos valores de adhesión y precio competitivo.

Este desarrollo consistió en tres etapas:

1.Preparación de una dispersión acuosa estable de CPS. Esta etapa comprende desnaturalizar la fase proteica para generar adhesividad y establecer los límites de viscosidad de la dispersión. Se empleó NaOH (hidróxido de sodio) como agente desnaturalizante y se estudió el efecto de su concentración buscando, al mismo tiempo, optimizar la viscosidad de trabajo.

Formulación del adhesivo con y sin aditivación. A la dispersión preparada se agregó el agente de curado en distintas proporciones. Con estas formulaciones mas el adhesivo sin aditivo mas un adhesivo de resina urea-formaldehido (UF) empleado como control comparativo, se midieron los valores de adhesión tipo sobre madera.

Tomando la formulación de mayor comportamiento, se realizó un costeo aproximado de materias primas.

Como resultado final se obtuvo un adhesivo basado en una materia prima renovable y abundante. El producto puede reemplazar a los de UF para uso en madera en seco y  no presenta la toxicidad debida al formaldehido ya que no se emplea esa sustancia en la formulación, ni se genera en su aplicación.  El mismo está a disposición de aquellas empresas que deseen producirlo.

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