Por la Prof. Susana Muzaber Lic. Ciencias Naturales, Consultora Ecología & Ambiente.Toda área natural es productora de recursos. El hombre extrae de ella leña,  maderas, forrajes, animales para su alimento, frutos, etc. La explotación puede ser indefinida siempre que la misma no llegue a romper el equilibrio y dejen de servir al hombre.
Se los denomina recursos renovables en cuanto pueden reaccionar a la explotación  continuando con su producción. Las tierras áridas constituyen un importante reservorio de recursos naturales renovables (fauna, flora, suelo) y son un  muestrario de la extraordinaria variedad y repertorio adaptativo de plantas y animales.
La diversidad biológica de las tierras áridas ha sufrido una gran degradación ambiental, ya sea por sobrepastoreo, caza desmedida, tala, expansión de la frontera agropecuaria, introducción de especies exóticas, etc.
La desaparición o la extrema reducción de poblaciones de especies autóctonas lleva a un empobrecimiento de las comunidades locales que subsisten por el aprovechamiento integral (ej. Lanas, cueros, carne) de algunas de estas especies (guanaco, vicuña, ñandú).
Revertir este deterioro, restaurar y proteger la biodiversidad de nuestras zonas áridas es uno de los desafíos para los próximos años, ya que implica cambios sustanciales en la forma de percibir nuestros ambientes naturales y sus recursos.
Las Reservas Naturales o Áreas Naturales Protegidas (ANP) son esencialmente áreas donde se protegen los recursos naturales sin alterar su fisonomía natural. Mendoza posee en la actualidad catorce ANP, de las cuales solo UNA se encuentra en San Rafael (Reserva Faunística Laguna La Salina). La administración de estas áreas está a cargo de la Dirección de Recursos Renovables, y se clasifican según los diferentes objetivos y criterios de conservación.
La Conservación de la biodiversidad se refiere a la explotación racional de los recursos naturales renovables con la finalidad de detener la destrucción y de mantener las comunidades (animales y vegetales) en permanente producción.
Actualmente se está promoviendo la Conservación en tierras privadas, es decir, sumar áreas privadas a la conservación de ambientes naturales. Lo que se propone es un modelo de desarrollo económico alternativo desde una óptica que maximiza el uso sustentable de los recursos.
Esta propuesta constituye una alternativa viable en campos privados que conserven valores ambientales (biodiversidad, riqueza genética, valor paisajístico, etc.). En estas áreas se admiten actividades  económicas que sean compatibles con la conservación (ganadería sobre pastizales naturales, cultivos orgánicos, turismo responsable o ecológico, educación e interpretación ambiental, etc.).
En Argentina hay más de cien Reservas Privadas asegurando la conservación de la vida silvestre y el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas.

Por Lic.Susana Muzaber

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