Por W.O. Santander.
Por W.O. Santander.

Este verano que hemos estado viviendo no solo debe llamarnos la atención por lo extraño sino que debe preocuparnos y esto debe movernos a ocuparnos para ver qué podemos hacer, pero no solo aquí en la Argentina, Mendoza, San Rafael sino en el mundo todo. Este calor, la falta de lluvias generalizadas, y el estiramiento del verano pasado como ocurrió este año no deben ser cosas que nos deben sorprender luego de todo el empreño que le hemos puesto para dañar el clima.

Estos cambios no solo nos afectaran en si pasaremos más o menos calor, si tendremos más o menos nieve para esquiar lo cierto es que todo esto afectara fundamentalmente nuestras base económica que es la producción agropecuaria.

Las zonas vitivinícolas argentinas han experimentado aumentos de temperatura en los últimos años. También se han observado alargamientos en los períodos de cosecha, donde el inicio de la vendimia no sólo tiende a adelantarse, sino que el fin de la recolección tiende a culminar más tardíamente.
El comentario corresponde a Ana Carla Aruani, del grupo de Degustación y Estudios Enológicos del Instituto Nacional de Vitivinicultura (INV). La profesional ha realizado un análisis acerca de los «impactos potenciales del cambio climático en la vitivinicultura».
En la Argentina, desde Salta a Río Negro, las modificaciones en cuanto a la cosecha «parecen estar relacionadas con los aumentos de temperatura», indicó Aruani.
«Sumados al incremento de precipitaciones estivales en el piedemonte, la disminución de nevadas en la cordillera y el aumento de frecuencia de eventos extremos pronosticados para esta región para las próximas décadas, esta perspectiva compleja seguramente traerá consecuencias importantes en el manejo de los viñedos y en la producción vitivinícola de nuestro país», expresó la ingeniera agrónoma. En Mendoza, por ser la principal productora del país, lógicamente este hecho repercutirá en mayor medida.
Al efectuar un análisis global, Aruani manifestó que las condiciones medioambientales tienen una influencia directa en el crecimiento de la vid, la maduración adecuada de la uva y en la calidad del vino.
Entre los factores meteorológicos que inciden están la radiación solar, precipitación, vientos, eventos «extremos» de granizo y heladas. «Sin embargo –indicó la investigadora– se podría decir que la aptitud de las zonas vitícolas para madurar sus uvas a niveles óptimos de azúcar, acidez, color y componentes aromáticos depende en gran medida de las temperaturas registradas durante el período de crecimiento de la vid».
Zonas frías podrían favorecerse


«Diversos estudios de datos de temperaturas globales han encontrado que las zonas vitivinícolas del mundo han experimentado un calentamiento generalizado en el último siglo», indicó Ana Carla Aruani, de Estudios Enológicos del INV.

Proyecciones en base a modelos globales indican que esta tendencia al calentamiento continuará durante el siglo XXI junto con un aumento de la frecuencia de eventos extremos (olas de calor, sequía, granizo).
«Entre otras cosas, estos cambios en las temperaturas tendrán probablemente impactos dispares en la producción de vid y calidad de vinos», indicó. «Zonas vitícolas de climas templados-cálidos, que se encuentran actualmente cercanas al límite climático superior para el cultivo de la vid, serán probablemente las más afectadas, ya que si la temperatura en esa zona aumenta más de lo «ideal», los estadíos fenológicos se producirán más rápidamente, dando como resultado una acumulación acelerada de los azúcares y pérdida de acidez por respiración, produciendo vinos «sosos» y poco balanceados.
«Por otro lado –continuó–, es probable que las zonas más frescas o frías, ubicadas en el límite inferior de temperaturas aceptables para el crecimiento de la vid, se vean más favorecidas por un calentamiento que permitiría no sólo un período de crecimiento más extenso, sino también un aumento en el número de variedades de vid aptas para cultivar en esa región».
«En otras palabras –sintetizó Aruani–, en estas estas zonas frescas-frías, cambios hacia un clima más benigno generarían condiciones más propicias para la producción de azúcares, compuestos fenólicos (responsables del color de los vinos) y compuestos aromáticos, aumentando potencialmente la calidad y variedad de los vinos resultantes».

Sin caer en  el tremendismo ecológico que manejan algunos, creo que debemos comenzar a prestar atención sobre lo que estamos haciendo con nuestro clima, no el de San Rafael, Mendoza, Argentina, sino el clima del mundo que es el de todos y comenzar a exigir a las grandes economías que adhieran y cumplan los tratados y protocolos medioambientales que los sectores ecologistas nos exigen, hasta patoteramente que países emergentes como los nuestros los acaten pero nada se les escucha decir sobre las actitudes de los países más poderosos del planeta.

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