G8Se trata de una nueva estrategia que busca que produzcan más alimentos, en vez de apelar a la distribución de ayuda humanitaria. Los países más industrializados desembolsarán los fondos en un lapso de tres años. Fue resuelto durante la cumbre que se desarrolla en Italia.

Líderes mundiales acordaron hoy en la cumbre del G8 destinar 20.000 millones de dólares para que los agricultores de las naciones más pobres aumentan la producción, en un cambio de estrategia para combatir el hambre en el mundo, según mostró la declaración final del encuentro.

El Grupo de los Ocho (G8) países más industrializados desembolsará los fondos en un lapso de tres años, según el documento, firmado por los 27 gobernantes que participaron de la tercera y última jornada de la cumbre del G8, a la que se sumaron hoy 19 naciones y varias organizaciones internacionales invitadas.

La nueva estrategia busca que los agricultores pobres produzcan más alimentos, en vez de apelar a la distribución de ayuda humanitaria como única herramienta contra el hambre.

La ONU saludó la iniciativa, pero organizaciones de lucha contra la pobreza consideraron insuficientes los fondos.

El proyecto es un nuevo enfoque del concepto de seguridad alimentaria, como se denomina al estado en que todos los individuos tienen acceso a una alimentación adecuada, una situación que, según expertos, refuerza la estabilidad política.

"Existe una necesidad urgente de una acción decisiva para liberar a la humanidad del hambre y la pobreza. Apuntaremos a incrementar substancialmente la ayuda a la agricultura y la seguridad alimentaria", dijeron los líderes en la declaración, citada por la agencia de noticias ANSA.

"El número de las personas que sufren hambre y viven en la pobreza son hoy más de mil millones", agregaron.

El plan se acordó en la jornada de clausura de la cumbre del G8 en la ciudad italiana de LïAquila, que reunió a Estados Unidos, el Reino Unido, Francia, Alemania, Japón, Italia, Canadá y Rusia.

Las conversaciones sobre la crisis económica, el cambio climático y el hambre y la pobreza se ampliaron ayer para incluir al Grupo de los Cinco países en desarrollo (Brasil, China, India, México y Sudáfrica) y naciones emergentes, y hoy a países de Africa.

En un comunicado separado, los gobernantes asistentes destacaron la importancia de incrementar el acceso al agua en Africa, y los líderes del G8 prometieron ayudar a los países africanos a lograrlo.

Garantizar la seguridad alimentaria se convirtió en los últimos años en una de las prioridades en la agenda política. Los altos precios de los alimentos, sumados a la crisis global y a la falta de inversión en agricultura provocaron enfrentamientos o disturbios por comida el año pasado.

Los expertos dicen que aumentar la productividad de los agricultores pobres tendrá un efecto positivo de largo plazo contra el hambre, mejorará el comercio regional y eventualmente disminuirá el flujo inmigratorio hacia Europa o naciones ricas.

Aunque la distribución de ayuda humanitaria seguirá siendo necesaria para evitar que la gente muera de hambre, la nueva estrategia se fija una meta de más largo plazo.

"Es un cambio total, bienvenido y alentador", dijo el director de la Organización de la ONU para la Agricultura y la Alimentación (FAO), Jacques Diouf.

La organización humanitaria OXFAM consideró los fondos insuficientes, y dijo que son necesarios 25.000 millones de dólares por año para combatir el hambre con eficacia.



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